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Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
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I am so proud to be part of the ISSA family. When I became certified back in 2011, I never knew how quickly my business would become so successful.
The ISSA has not only helped me to become a better athlete and aspiring trainer but more importantly a better person.
My ISSA certifications as a Fitness Trainer, Sports Nutrition Specialist and Strength and Conditioning Specialist has really propelled my career to where it is today.
Although English is not my first language, I can tell you all that it was easy to assimilate all the terms and accomplish the course.
I thank ISSA, their entire team for designing such a course and helping me to make my passion a Profession.
The ISSA is one of the only organizations I’ve worked with that has had nothing but encouragement to give to me and that’s exactly what I needed.
My experiences with ISSA have led me to be a very successful and respected Personal Trainer and I love Personal Training!
I loved every single page of my book. They were so informative and every topic we're in-depth.
The best part about ISSA, is when you call, you talk to a real person. They are quick to respond, answer all of your questions and help guide you to be successful.
The knowledge that I received has been extremely helpful in my own weight loss journey where I have lost more than 100 lbs.
I had taken one or two other courses by different organizations before and they were nowhere near as thorough and in-depth as this one.
The ISSA certified personal trainer program is the best experience of my life.
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