Ready to jump-start your career?
Get your free evaluation kit today!
- 5 Step plan to becoming certified
- How to enroll with ISSA
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.
My experience has been great and the support team makes it very easy to complete the course and get back to me with answers to any questions I have very quickly.
Thanks to ISSA, I am able to compete and win in bodybuilding competitions despite my day job, and I am honored to help others achieve their personal health aspirations amid their busy schedules.
The best part about ISSA, is when you call, you talk to a real person. They are quick to respond, answer all of your questions and help guide you to be successful.
ISSA has taught me how to adapt various teaching methods to suit clients learning needs, allowing me to create healthy environments for teaching.
I am now one step closer to my visions. I can't wait to get out there and help others. I highly recommend this course to individuals who are interested in becoming a certified personal trainer.
Suresh Chalapathi Kumar Babu
Of my now 25 coaching certifications, I was super impressed with how in-depth and thorough the ISSA SSC is.
As the coursework progressed I began seeing my clients through a different perspective and i firmly believe that ISSA is responsible to give me this sense of professionalism and belonging!
I had the chance to discover the ISSA team, which made my dream possible, to become a certified trainer. With their outstanding vision, support and professionalism they guided me to reach the goal.
Mihnea Niculae Paraschivescu
The ISSA certified personal trainer program is the best experience of my life.
The International Sports Sciences Association certified personal trainer program has been one of the best experiences of my life
I highly recommend anyone who is in this field or career and to take ISSA, they are very helpful, professional and they help you expand in the personal training, fitness and healthy lifestyle.
ISSA provides a good educational platform to start a career as a fitness trainer.
Get your free evaluation kit today!
© 2019 ISSA. All rights reserved.Terms & Conditions