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Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
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I am really looking forward to helping people realize and reach their goals of becoming more healthy and physically fit, no matter their age.
It’s been a great journey and ISSA has helped this journey and dream become a reality. The information and learning have been rewarding and beneficial in running a business and being a personal training.
With ISSA guidance and textbooks, I have upgraded my knowledge to another level and I feel this by seeing big changes in my clients & myself!
I loved every single page of my book. They were so informative and every topic we're in-depth.
I was extremely impressed with the overall course and materials ISSA provided; now ISSA has truly prepared me for my future as a personal trainer!
The knowledge that I received has been extremely helpful in my own weight loss journey where I have lost more than 100 lbs.
I’ve been searching for the best training a company has to offer for years, ISSA really has it all.
Andrea De Persio
The best part about ISSA, is when you call, you talk to a real person. They are quick to respond, answer all of your questions and help guide you to be successful.
With the knowledge, I've gained from the program. I feel confident to go into the work as a personal trainer now, and to start this phase in my life.
The ISSA is a good foundation for anybody who starts with a certification in personal training.
The amount of knowledge in the textbook is really satisfying for someone who’s interested in both fitness and the sciences of the human body, and who’s willing to learn about the relationships between them.
Jehad Refaat Abdel Hamid
The ISSA courses are wonderful. I love being able to work at my own pace. They have so many certifications to choose from. ISSA has really helped take my career to the next level.
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