About Glutamine

Get Started Now

About The Course

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.

Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.

Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.

"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.

Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.


Hear how ISSA has helped students like you

My goal is to motivate and inspire, to love and be loved, and to help people obtain a healthy mind, body and spirit.

Bethany Hernandez

ISSA has been the best thing that has happened to me!

Michael Patsaros

ISSA helped to guide me down the path toward an exciting future in the fitness industry!

Tesia Stein

With ISSA I've gained the knowledge and education to grow my personal training business to where it is today.

Melanie Moss

I feel there is always something to learn when it comes to health and fitness so I can trust the ISSA to support me with the information I seek.

Jacob Smith

ISSA's course material was extremely detail orientated and covered every aspect of becoming a personal trainer.

Andrew Presnell

ISSA has given me new knowledge and helped me become a more confident and skilled instructor for seniors.

Pehr Torells

The information I learned in the CFT course was top notch.

Collin Welch

ISSA made it easy for me to complete the steps needed to accomplish my goals!

Kristy Gordon

I learned so much about what it takes to be a trainer. The program covers tons of information, but it was manageable and very useful and relevant.

Keila Lounds

I am a certified personal trainer. Now I am free to make money doing what I love more than anything, helping others reach the happy, healthy state that I have.

Nickolas Lollar

The ISSA certified personal trainer program is the best experience of my life.

Yudishteer Seewooruttun

LEARN MORE

Requirements

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

View continuing education requirements

Continuing Education

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.

View CEU offerings

Recertification

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

Recertification courses

Ready to jump-start your career?

Get your free evaluation kit today!

INCLUDES:

  • Readiness quiz
  • 5 Step plan to becoming certified
  • How to enroll with ISSA

No cost. No obligation.

Need help?
Contact Us

Need help?
Contact Us

Call Us

(800) 892-4772