300,000 Certifications Worldwide

300,000 Certifications Worldwide

143 Countries Around The Globe

143 Countries Around The Globe

30+ Years in Fitness Certifications

30+ Years in Fitness Certifications

No Credit Checks. No Fees. No Taxes.

No Credit Checks. No Fees. No Taxes.

Job Guarantee

Job Guarantee

About Glutamine

About Glutamine

Get Started Now

About The Course

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.

Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.

Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.

"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.

Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.


Hear how ISSA has helped students like you

Diamond Stevens

Personally, I would recommend it to a lot of people. I learn a lot of new things and ways you can train somebody that I'm ready to use the stuff I learned to better people lives.

Diamond Stevens

Michael Jenkins

If you're wondering if the ISSA can truly change your mind, your body, your career, your outlook on yourself, your life? The answer...is a resounding...'Yes'.

Michael Jenkins

Malaika Jacocks

If I had questions, comments or concerns, I would call and the staff was so very helpful, I was in shock of how much support I got!

Malaika Jacocks

Cindy Jacobo

My experience has been great and the support team makes it very easy to complete the course and get back to me with answers to any questions I have very quickly.

Cindy Jacobo

Natalie Specioso

I feel confident to go into the work force as a personal trainer now, and I'm excited to start this chapter in my life.

Natalie Specioso

Tristin Cloer

ISSA was one of the only names that was recognized right away and was viewed by all the gyms I called as a very knowledgeable and reputable association.

Tristin Cloer

Rajat Sharma

I wanted to start my career in fitness, so I opted for ISSA. I have done certification in fitness training and scored 95.7% in it.

Rajat Sharma

Kam Hogan

The business resources provided as part of the course material really help to set up your own personal training business with form templates and tips to help you hit the ground running and succeed!

Kam Hogan

Walter Sadiq Daniels

I have no complaints and I will always proudly display my certification and recommend you to all I know. You have given me a foundation for my future.

Walter Sadiq Daniels

Joseph Alexander Harris

Did my research and found out that not only is ISSA a reputable certification, they also are willing to help you succeed after you get certified.

Joseph Alexander Harris

Giorgi Tartarashvili

The platform provides every tool possible and great customer support to get maximum out of the course. I would recommend to anyone who wants to become CFT and trust ISSA will provide quality resources...

Giorgi Tartarashvili

Moji Oluwa

I am so proud to be part of the ISSA family. When I became certified back in 2011, I never knew how quickly my business would become so successful.

Moji Oluwa

LEARN MORE

Certified Personal Trainer

Continuing Education

Continue your quest to be the best by keeping up on the latest information in your field.

View CEU offerings

Recertification

Stay current and up-to-date by maintaining your active status.

Recertification courses

Ready to jump-start your career?

Get your free evaluation kit today!

INCLUDES:

  • 5 Step plan to becoming certified
  • How to enroll with ISSA

No cost. No obligation.

Need help?
Contact Us

Need help?
Contact Us

Call Us

(800) 892-4772