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Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
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It was a great experience. I enjoyed every minute of it, and i learned a lot of information that will help me in my life and with my future clients.
ISSA's course material was extremely detail orientated and covered every aspect of becoming a personal trainer.
I am really looking forward to helping people realize and reach their goals of becoming more healthy and physically fit, no matter their age.
I definitely recommend the ISSA on-line program to become a certified personal trainer, it's very complete and you get a lot of support along the way.
Rian De La Torre
My experiences with ISSA have led me to be a very successful and respected Personal Trainer and I love Personal Training!
I have been training this 13-year-old girl and it's been more than 8 to 9 months. Her parents were extremely happy about her body language, and she has improved a lot in endurance/stamina.
After completing my CPT successfully, I can say only one thing that ISSA is really good in providing you the knowledge which is required in the fitness industry. It makes you fitness industry ready in every aspect.
I simply have not ever enjoyed a certification as much as I did this one. This is by far my favorite and I thought the entire program was very well worded and engaging.
I just completed the Bodybuilding Course through the ISSA. Josh Bryant, the author, is a well-known strength coach and strength athlete. He delivers a course that provides plenty of time-tested bodybuilding methods mixed with modern application.
I was so overwhelmed at first but chatted with a master trainer on the website and they gave me some wonderful study tips that built my confidence back up. I actually finished a month early.
I just finished my newest certification of Specialist in Exercise Therapy, and that ISSA was there to help me successfully pass the exam with confidence. I highly recommend the ISSA to fellow trainers, and to trainers, we hire for our studio!
ISSA has brought a strong root into my life that keeps leading me towards success.
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