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Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
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The ISSA is one of the only organizations I’ve worked with that has had nothing but encouragement to give to me and that’s exactly what I needed.
The platform provides every tool possible and great customer support to get maximum out of the course. I would recommend to anyone who wants to become CFT and trust ISSA will provide quality resources...
ISSA has changed my life for the better and by changing my life ISSA has equipped me with the tools and support to help whoever may be looking for guidance pertaining to their health and fitness endeavors.
I’ve been searching for the best training a company has to offer for years, ISSA really has it all.
Andrea De Persio
Since I have been in the fitness field for over twenty years I can truly say I have gained a lot more experience and knowledge from successfully completing the ISSA course.
With ISSA guidance and textbooks, I have upgraded my knowledge to another level and I feel this by seeing big changes in my clients & myself!
I loved every single page of my book. They were so informative and every topic we're in-depth.
This program gave me the foundation and the confidence I needed to pursue my dream. I would highly recommend this program to anyone hoping to take their life in a new direction at any age.
I found it to be challenging, informative, and very current. ISSA provides great communication and they are always there from start to finish.
ISSA has helped make my dreams com true of being a personal trainer and helping people become better versions of themselves.
The ISSA program provided me with the flexibility to achieve my certification while maintaining a full time career, being a parent of two active grade school children and husband.
I am really looking forward to helping people realize and reach their goals of becoming more healthy and physically fit, no matter their age.
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