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Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle and plasma. It is used primarily as a fuel source by cells of the small intestine and cells of the immune system (lymphocytes and macrophages). Glutamine affects lymphocyte proliferation (reproduction/multiplication) and macrophage function, both of which are required for optimal immune response against foreign substances (antigens) such as bacteria, viruses or tumor cells. The liver and brain also utilize glutamine, but to a lesser extent, and the kidneys use glutamine only in times when ammonia production is necessary. About 40% of the glutamine used by the body is used by the gastrointestinal tract. This glutamine is made available primarily through the digestion of dietary protein. Practically all of the glutamine absorbed by the intestinal cells is metabolized by the intestinal cells. Therefore, circulating glutamine (in the blood) must be supplied by tissues that have the ability to produce glutamine, namely the liver and muscle.
Since muscle is the dominant supplier, and because muscle provides a store of glutamine, plasma glutamine becomes the link between skeletal muscle and the immune system. At any given time, lymphocytes and macrophages may be called upon to respond rapidly, effectively, and specifically to an immune challenge. This may require very high rates of fuel use, even in the resting state. If glutamine production by the muscle becomes impaired, then so does the immune system.
Glutamine is produced in muscle several ways: (1) Uptake of glutamate from the bloodstream accounts for 18-65% of glutamine production. (2) Breakdown of muscle protein produces glutamine directly, and it is this fact that leads to muscle catabolism if not sufficient glutamine is present when needed for immune function. (3) Breakdown of muscle protein also produces the branched chain amino acids glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine that are used for the synthesis of glutamine. It has also been suggested that glutamine can be produced using the carbon skeletons of carbohydrates, such as muscle glycogen and blood glucose.
"Extra" glutamine purportedly maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production. A condition such as prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, and thereby maintain the activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation/breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion. Glutamine is therefore labeled by some as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.
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The tools and resources that ISSA provide are invaluable and will really set you apart from the rest, in this fitness industry.
Their courses work well with my very busy schedule. ISSA's support team has always answered any questions in a timely manner whether it by phone or email.
Thanks to ISSA, I am able to compete and win in bodybuilding competitions despite my day job, and I am honored to help others achieve their personal health aspirations amid their busy schedules.
This is the most reputable organization to turn to if you're considering a career in fitness or even if it's just for your personal gain.
May EL Azhari
After completing my CPT successfully, I can say only one thing that ISSA is really good in providing you the knowledge which is required in the fitness industry. It makes you fitness industry ready in every aspect.
Having the backing of ISSA I feel confident that I am helping to change people's lives through fitness and I am very passionate about that! I am excited to meet new clients and help them start their fitness journeys.
Since I have been in the fitness field for over twenty years I can truly say I have gained a lot more experience and knowledge from successfully completing the ISSA course.
The book is well illustrated and supported with diagrams and photos helping to clarify the information in each unit.
When it came to being a trainer there wasn't any sugar coating. It was laid out for what it is in the real world in what is to be expected of you as an ISSA professional.
The best part of it all is I was able to study at home and I can't begin to tell anyone how thorough the course that the ISSA has for becoming a personal trainer is.
Charles Poole Jr.
Being able to study at my own pace, fitting it in with my own hectic lifestyle was a huge benefit.
I chose ISSA because it is well known for its business.
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