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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.
The book is well illustrated and supported with diagrams and photos helping to clarify the information in each unit.
ISSA has remained to be among the leaders of the fitness industry and is still an organization that is nationally recognized and has a good reputation.
I loved every single page of my book. They were so informative and every topic we're in-depth.
I am so overly emotional and proud that throughout these last 12 weeks of insane studies and working all the time; I finished. I can't wait to see how ISSA helps me better myself and everyone around me.
I have had and continue to have a great experience with the staff at ISSA headquarters. They have always been super friendly and helpful.
The course was demanding, and required a lot of work, study and effort but this is what separates ISSA from the rest. I would proudly recommend ISSA!
My ISSA certifications as a Fitness Trainer, Sports Nutrition Specialist and Strength and Conditioning Specialist has really propelled my career to where it is today.
I am really looking forward to helping people realize and reach their goals of becoming more healthy and physically fit, no matter their age.
The ISSA certified personal trainer program is the best experience of my life.
I found ISSA, and let me tell you it changed everything. I'm now a product of my passion, I get to share my love with my clients on a daily basis.
I have been training this 13-year-old girl and it's been more than 8 to 9 months. Her parents were extremely happy about her body language, and she has improved a lot in endurance/stamina.
My experiences with ISSA have led me to be a very successful and respected Personal Trainer and I love Personal Training!
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