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Caffeine is a crystal-like substance found in many beverages (coffee, tea, and cola), medications, and foods. Caffeine is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and attains maximum values within 15 to 120 minutes of consumption. Through the blood, caffeine is spread to many tissues in the body, including the brain. Enzymes in the liver breakdown caffeine, leaving very little to be cleared in urine.
Caffeine has both central and peripheral effects in the body. In the central nervous system caffeine affects parts of the brain and the spinal cord, while in the periphery it affects organs and tissues. At low doses (2-10 mg/kg), it can cause increased alertness, less fatigue, reduced reaction time, increased ventilation, and poorer performance of some fine motor skills. At higher doses (>15 mg/kg), caffeine can cause nervousness, insomnia, headaches, and unsteadiness. Caffeine also has inconsistent effects on the cardiovascular system. Depending on where it acts in the body, caffeine can either raise or lower heart rate and cause blood vessels to constrict or dilate. Caffeine can cause a mild increase in urine output from the kidneys and dilation of the bronchi. Caffeine causes the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands, which causes lipolysis (break down of fat) in muscle and adipose tissues. This increased mobilization of free fatty acids can lead to glycogen sparing early in the exercise period because the body uses relatively more free fatty acids for energy. Caffeine also directly acts on muscle cells by enhancing the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscles cells, which improves muscle contraction.
There are a variety of possible mechanisms by which caffeine is proposed to enhance athletic performance, many of which are mentioned above. The most researched and widely acknowledged mechanism is by glycogen sparing via increased fat utilization, thus allowing the athlete to exercise longer at a given submaximal intensity. Other mechanisms include increased catecholamine release, increased calcium release from muscle cells, and reduced perception of effort. On a cellular level, caffeine inhibits adenosine, causing increased urine excretion, stimulation of the central nervous system, increased lipolysis in fat cells (adipocytes) and increased gastric secretion. Increased lipolysis in fat cells occurs because caffeine reduces the inhibitory influence of adenosine on lipolysis, thus increasing lipolysis. These methods of enhanced athletic performance and other possible mechanisms are examined further throughout the course.
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I was so overwhelmed at first but chatted with a master trainer on the website and they gave me some wonderful study tips that built my confidence back up. I actually finished a month early.
Thanks for the knowledge and opportunities to now do what I love to do.
I chose ISSA because it is well known for its business.
The material supplied for this course was vast and informative, and will certainly be a great tool to use as a reference from time to time.
My ISSA certifications as a Fitness Trainer, Sports Nutrition Specialist and Strength and Conditioning Specialist has really propelled my career to where it is today.
ISSA makes it affordable to attain your Fitness certifications and their staff is incredible!
I needed a online option that would meet my needs so I could study and also work, the course more than met my needs and expectations.
ISSA helped to guide me down the path toward an exciting future in the fitness industry!
ISSA has been outstanding when it comes to educating and certificating their students. The material is easy to ready, with rich content, and well structured.
Everything about my course was helpful and the fact that there is continuous resources for personal trainers is a positive tool that I will surely use.
After completing this course I feel much more confident in myself as a trainer and overall more equipped than ever to take on clients and help them achieve their goals of being healthy.
The knowledge that I received has been extremely helpful in my own weight loss journey where I have lost more than 100 lbs.
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