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Caffeine is a crystal-like substance found in many beverages (coffee, tea, and cola), medications, and foods. Caffeine is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and attains maximum values within 15 to 120 minutes of consumption. Through the blood, caffeine is spread to many tissues in the body, including the brain. Enzymes in the liver breakdown caffeine, leaving very little to be cleared in urine.
Caffeine has both central and peripheral effects in the body. In the central nervous system caffeine affects parts of the brain and the spinal cord, while in the periphery it affects organs and tissues. At low doses (2-10 mg/kg), it can cause increased alertness, less fatigue, reduced reaction time, increased ventilation, and poorer performance of some fine motor skills. At higher doses (>15 mg/kg), caffeine can cause nervousness, insomnia, headaches, and unsteadiness. Caffeine also has inconsistent effects on the cardiovascular system. Depending on where it acts in the body, caffeine can either raise or lower heart rate and cause blood vessels to constrict or dilate. Caffeine can cause a mild increase in urine output from the kidneys and dilation of the bronchi. Caffeine causes the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands, which causes lipolysis (break down of fat) in muscle and adipose tissues. This increased mobilization of free fatty acids can lead to glycogen sparing early in the exercise period because the body uses relatively more free fatty acids for energy. Caffeine also directly acts on muscle cells by enhancing the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscles cells, which improves muscle contraction.
There are a variety of possible mechanisms by which caffeine is proposed to enhance athletic performance, many of which are mentioned above. The most researched and widely acknowledged mechanism is by glycogen sparing via increased fat utilization, thus allowing the athlete to exercise longer at a given submaximal intensity. Other mechanisms include increased catecholamine release, increased calcium release from muscle cells, and reduced perception of effort. On a cellular level, caffeine inhibits adenosine, causing increased urine excretion, stimulation of the central nervous system, increased lipolysis in fat cells (adipocytes) and increased gastric secretion. Increased lipolysis in fat cells occurs because caffeine reduces the inhibitory influence of adenosine on lipolysis, thus increasing lipolysis. These methods of enhanced athletic performance and other possible mechanisms are examined further throughout the course.
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They have been tremendously supportive over the years and helped me to build a very profitable personal training practice!
The ISSA is one of the only organizations I’ve worked with that has had nothing but encouragement to give to me and that’s exactly what I needed.
It’s been a great journey and ISSA has helped this journey and dream become a reality. The information and learning have been rewarding and beneficial in running a business and being a personal training.
I just finished my newest certification of Specialist in Exercise Therapy, and that ISSA was there to help me successfully pass the exam with confidence. I highly recommend the ISSA to fellow trainers, and to trainers, we hire for our studio!
I found it to be challenging, informative, and very current. ISSA provides great communication and they are always there from start to finish.
I’ve been searching for the best training a company has to offer for years, ISSA really has it all.
Andrea De Persio
I have learned to change the lifestyle of others in a positive way from good nutrition to the proper training techniques and also to help improve my overall physique.
ISSA offers lessons of real-world cases and the insights of professionals.
I had taken one or two other courses by different organizations before and they were nowhere near as thorough and in-depth as this one.
ISSA has remained to be among the leaders of the fitness industry and is still an organization that is nationally recognized and has a good reputation.
I was Impress with the high level of clarity of the material and the lectures.
The ISSA has changed my outlook on training clients.
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