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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.
With the knowledge, I've gained from the program. I feel confident to go into the work as a personal trainer now, and to start this phase in my life.
I was so overwhelmed at first but chatted with a master trainer on the website and they gave me some wonderful study tips that built my confidence back up. I actually finished a month early.
If I had questions, comments or concerns, I would call and the staff was so very helpful, I was in shock of how much support I got!
This institution has been key in my development as a personal trainer and also instrumental in me being able to take my passion and turn it into a career.
I've always been passionate about fitness, and ISSA gave me tools to build a knowledge base that I can continue to add to.
Ana Victoria Cate
My experience with ISSA was amazing. I was so impressed with the online self-study program and how it was organized. I was equally impressed with the staff support, knowledge and integrity!
I have had and continue to have a great experience with the staff at ISSA headquarters. They have always been super friendly and helpful.
ISSA was a great school and has taught me many things about how to do this and the correct ways.
This program encompasses a broad amount of information across the board in physical fitness.
I needed a online option that would meet my needs so I could study and also work, the course more than met my needs and expectations.
I've found ISSA's to be the most qualified, useful AND helpful certifications in the business.
When it came to being a trainer there wasn't any sugar coating. It was laid out for what it is in the real world in what is to be expected of you as an ISSA professional.
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