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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
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The ISSA is one of the only organizations I’ve worked with that has had nothing but encouragement to give to me and that’s exactly what I needed.
It’s been a great journey and ISSA has helped this journey and dream become a reality. The information and learning have been rewarding and beneficial in running a business and being a personal training.
I just finished my newest certification of Specialist in Exercise Therapy, and that ISSA was there to help me successfully pass the exam with confidence. I highly recommend the ISSA to fellow trainers, and to trainers, we hire for our studio!
I found it to be challenging, informative, and very current. ISSA provides great communication and they are always there from start to finish.
I’ve been searching for the best training a company has to offer for years, ISSA really has it all.
Andrea De Persio
I have learned to change the lifestyle of others in a positive way from good nutrition to the proper training techniques and also to help improve my overall physique.
ISSA offers lessons of real-world cases and the insights of professionals.
I had taken one or two other courses by different organizations before and they were nowhere near as thorough and in-depth as this one.
ISSA has remained to be among the leaders of the fitness industry and is still an organization that is nationally recognized and has a good reputation.
I was Impress with the high level of clarity of the material and the lectures.
The ISSA has changed my outlook on training clients.
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