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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
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I have had and continue to have a great experience with the staff at ISSA headquarters. They have always been super friendly and helpful.
When it came to being a trainer there wasn't any sugar coating. It was laid out for what it is in the real world in what is to be expected of you as an ISSA professional.
They provide you with the academic knowledge and the real world skills you need to be a success.
After now having received my certification through ISSA, I feel confident that I'm ready to start my business.
ISSA helped me earn the credentials necessary to ensure that I can give people like Eric Vanwagner all the tools they need to continue their journey back to normal function.
Being able to study at my own pace, fitting it in with my own hectic lifestyle was a huge benefit.
I definitely recommend the ISSA on-line program to become a certified personal trainer, it's very complete and you get a lot of support along the way.
Rian De La Torre
I feel confident to go into the work force as a personal trainer now, and I'm excited to start this chapter in my life.
ISSA offers lessons of real-world cases and the insights of professionals.
It was a great experience. I enjoyed every minute of it, and i learned a lot of information that will help me in my life and with my future clients.
The program is organized, well-priced, and super informative. It took me only four months to complete my certification.
The ISSA certified personal trainer program is the best experience of my life.
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