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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.
I simply have not ever enjoyed a certification as much as I did this one. This is by far my favorite and I thought the entire program was very well worded and engaging.
The course was demanding, and required a lot of work, study and effort but this is what separates ISSA from the rest. I would proudly recommend ISSA!
My experience with ISSA was amazing. I was so impressed with the online self-study program and how it was organized. I was equally impressed with the staff support, knowledge and integrity!
I have learned to change the lifestyle of others in a positive way from good nutrition to the proper training techniques and also to help improve my overall physique.
I hold two certifications with the International Sports Sciences Association and I couldn't be more pleased with the support I've received.
I am so overly emotional and proud that throughout these last 12 weeks of insane studies and working all the time; I finished. I can't wait to see how ISSA helps me better myself and everyone around me.
The International Sports Sciences Association certified personal trainer program has been one of the best experiences of my life
The program is organized, well-priced, and super informative. It took me only four months to complete my certification.
The ISSA courses are wonderful. I love being able to work at my own pace. They have so many certifications to choose from. ISSA has really helped take my career to the next level.
ISSA has brought a strong root into my life that keeps leading me towards success.
I learned so much about what it takes to be a trainer. The program covers tons of information, but it was manageable and very useful and relevant.
ISSA helped me transform my own life aside from teaching me how to help others.
Maria Luz Andrea Kjærnet
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