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Branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, when present in adequate concentrations, are supposed to maintain plasma glutamine concentration and cytokine (interleukin-1) production, while attenuating lymphocyte proliferation. This corresponds to maintaining the integrity of the immune system. Cytokines regulate immune and inflammatory responses and glutamine maintains skeletal muscle protein when the body's need for glutamine exceeds its natural production.
Prolonged, exhaustive exercise may cause the activity of the immune response cells to be suppressed. During such periods of metabolic stress, increasing the amount of glutamine made available would increase protein synthesis, maintain glutamine production, thereby maintaining activity of the immune response cells. If glutamine is not available, muscle catabolism (degradation, breakdown) proceeds and reductions in plasma glutamine concentration are likely, leaving the body's immune system more susceptible to invasion.
BCAAs also compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. If tryptophan wins, it is converted to 5-hydroxytryptomine, leading to an increase in serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity. It is well known that serotonin-like activity causes central fatigue (the "Central Fatigue Theory"). Theory has it that if BCAAs are present in concentrations high enough to win the BCAA-tryptophan battle, BCAAs could reduce the exercise-induced tryptophan uptake by the brain, thus delaying fatigue. This would allow the athlete to continue to perform.
Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.
My experiences with ISSA have led me to be a very successful and respected Personal Trainer and I love Personal Training!
Being apart of ISSA has brought me so many opportunities and will continue to do so.
Being able to study at my own pace, fitting it in with my own hectic lifestyle was a huge benefit.
I have learned to change the lifestyle of others in a positive way from good nutrition to the proper training techniques and also to help improve my overall physique.
This program encompasses a broad amount of information across the board in physical fitness.
I hold two certifications with the International Sports Sciences Association and I couldn't be more pleased with the support I've received.
The resources ISSA provides (both in hard copy and online) such as the study guide, the coursebook, the chapter summary videos, the exercise videos, and the question board are all very valuable tools...
The knowledge that I received has been extremely helpful in my own weight loss journey where I have lost more than 100 lbs.
I simply have not ever enjoyed a certification as much as I did this one. This is by far my favorite and I thought the entire program was very well worded and engaging.
My experience with ISSA was amazing. I was so impressed with the online self-study program and how it was organized. I was equally impressed with the staff support, knowledge and integrity!
Now, I can confidently provide them with knowledgeable fitness information that I have gained from my own fitness journey, and my training provided by ISSA.
I’ve been searching for the best training a company has to offer for years, ISSA really has it all.
Andrea De Persio
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